Lesson 16, Topic 2
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The Standard Model of Matter

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Three Generations of Matter (Fermions)

Quarks

IIIIII
up
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]u[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): +2/3
charm
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]c[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): +2/3
top
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]t[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): +2/3
down
<span style=”font-size:2.5em”>[katex]d[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1/3
strange
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]s[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1/3
bottom
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]b[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1/3
  • Hadrons are particles that feel the strong nuclear force
    • Held together by the strong nuclear force
    • Baryons are any hadrons composed of 3 valence quarks
      • Protons have 2 up quarks and 1 down quark for a +1 charge
      • Neutrons have 1 up quark and 2 down quarks for a neutral charge
    • Mesons are quark/antiquark pairs

Leptons

IIIIII
electron
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]e[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1
muon
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]\mu[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1
tau
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]\tau[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1
electron neutrino
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]\nu_e[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): 0
muon neutrino
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]\nu_\mu[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): 0
tau neutrino
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]\nu_\tau[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): 0
  • Leptons only respond to electromagnetic, weak and gravitational forces
    • Neutrinos are extremely light and have no electrical charge
    • Tau is the only lepton which can decay into a quark

Interactions / Force Carriers

i.e. Bosons

Gauge Bosons (Vector Bosons)

gluon
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]g[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1
Charge (e): 0
photon
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]\gamma[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1
Charge (e): 0
Z boson
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]Z[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1
Charge (e): 0
W boson
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]W[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 1
Charge (e): ±1
  • Gluons carry the strong nuclear force, holding quarks together

Scalar Bosons

higgs
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>[katex]H[/katex]</span>
Spin No.: 0
Charge (e): 0

Four Fundamental Forces

ForceActs onResponsible forAppears
GravitationalObjects with massGiving an object with mass its weight.Mod’s 2, 5.
ElectromagneticCharges and currentsMost of the interactions we see in our environment today, including all chemical reactionsMod’s 4, 6, 7
Strong nuclearSubatomic particlesHolding a nucleus together.Mod. 8
Weak nuclearSubatomic particlesRadioactive decay of atoms.Mod. 8