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HSC Chemistry

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  1. Module 5: Equilibrium and Acid Reactions
    5.1 Static and Dynamic Equilibrium
    5 Topics
  2. 5.2 Factors that Affect Equilibrium
    2 Topics
  3. 5.3 Calculating the Equilibrium Constant
    2 Topics
  4. 5.4 Solution Equilibria
  5. Module 6: Acid/Base Reactions
    6.1 Properties of Acids and Bases
    7 Topics
  6. 6.2 Using Brønsted–Lowry Theory
    2 Topics
  7. 6.3 Quantitative Analysis
    1 Topic
  8. Module 7: Organic Chemistry
    7.1 Nomenclature
    2 Topics
  9. 7.2 Hydrocarbons
    2 Topics
  10. 7.3 Products of Reactions Involving Hydrocarbons
  11. 7.4 Alcohols
    1 Topic
  12. 7.5 Reactions of Organic Acids and Bases
  13. 7.6 Polymers
    2 Topics
  14. Module 8: Applying Chemical Ideas
    8.1 Analysis of Inorganic Substances
    3 Topics
  15. 8.2 Analysis of Organic Substances
  16. 8.3 Chemical Synthesis and Design
  17. Working Scientifically
    Working Scientifically Overview
    1 Topic

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Lesson 8, Topic 1
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Steps for Naming Organic Substances

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The following steps are critical to accurately naming a variety of organic substances required by the syllabus.

  1. IDENTIFY PARENT CHAIN
    (longest continuous carbon chain)*
    *if multiple options of equal length, select for smallest branching
  2. IDENTIFY MAIN FN. GROUP
    Use below hierarchy (if multiple).
    No fn. group = alkane.
    –> YOUR SUFFIX
  3. IDENTIFY SUBSTITUENTS
    List alphabetically.
    –> YOUR PREFIXES
  4. DOUBLE/TRIPLE BONDS?
    Change ‘an’ –> ‘en’/’yn’ in parent prefix.
    (e.g. ethanol –> ethenol)
  5. MULTIPLE SAME SUBSTITUENTS?
    Add di/tri/tetra prefixes.*
    (2)(3)(4)
    *no effect on alphabetical order
  6. NUMBER CARBON CHAIN
    Give parent fn. group lowest #.
    If you have: alkanes, alkyl groups, halogens
    >> number from end closest to a substituent
  7. ADD LOCANT NUMBERS
    For every single substituent.

Important Considerations

Hyphens (-) go between letters and numbers. Commas separate numbers. There are no spaces in names, except for carboxylic acids.

Functional Group Hierarchy

i.e., the order of precedence of groups

  1. Carboxylic acids
  2. Carboxylic acid derivatives
    1. Esters
    2. Acid Halides
    3. Amides
  3. Aldehydes
  4. Ketones
  5. Alcohols
  6. Amines
  7. Alkynes, Alkenes
  8. Alkanes*

*Note that alkanes do not have a functional group. However, they have been placed in this list for convenience.