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HSC Chemistry

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  1. Module 5: Equilibrium and Acid Reactions
    5.1 Static and Dynamic Equilibrium
    5 Topics
  2. 5.2 Factors that Affect Equilibrium
    2 Topics
  3. 5.3 Calculating the Equilibrium Constant
    2 Topics
  4. 5.4 Solution Equilibria
  5. Module 6: Acid/Base Reactions
    6.1 Properties of Acids and Bases
    7 Topics
  6. 6.2 Using Brønsted–Lowry Theory
    2 Topics
  7. 6.3 Quantitative Analysis
    1 Topic
  8. Module 7: Organic Chemistry
    7.1 Nomenclature
    2 Topics
  9. 7.2 Hydrocarbons
    2 Topics
  10. 7.3 Products of Reactions Involving Hydrocarbons
  11. 7.4 Alcohols
    1 Topic
  12. 7.5 Reactions of Organic Acids and Bases
  13. 7.6 Polymers
    2 Topics
  14. Module 8: Applying Chemical Ideas
    8.1 Analysis of Inorganic Substances
    3 Topics
  15. 8.2 Analysis of Organic Substances
  16. 8.3 Chemical Synthesis and Design
  17. Working Scientifically
    Working Scientifically Overview
    1 Topic

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Lesson 6, Topic 1
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Introduction to pH

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The pH of a solution is defined as:

\text{pH} = -\text{log}_{10}[\text H^+] = \text{log}_{10}[\text H_3 \text O^+]

Acidic solutions have a pH < 7. Alkaline solutions have a pH > 7.

Example

Q: Calculate the pH of a 0.00250 mol L-1 nitric acid solution.


Nitric acid is a strong monoprotic acid and completely dissociates in water:

\text{HNO}_3 (aq) + \text H_2 \text O (l) \rightarrow \text H_3\text O^+ (aq) + \text{NO}_3^- (aq)
[\text H_3 \text O^+] = [\text {HNO}_3] = 0.00250 \space \text{mol} \space\text L^{-1}
\text{pH} = \text{log}_{10}[0.00250]=2.60