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HSC Chemistry

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  1. Module 5: Equilibrium and Acid Reactions
    5.1 Static and Dynamic Equilibrium
    5 Topics
  2. 5.2 Factors that Affect Equilibrium
    2 Topics
  3. 5.3 Calculating the Equilibrium Constant
    2 Topics
  4. 5.4 Solution Equilibria
  5. Module 6: Acid/Base Reactions
    6.1 Properties of Acids and Bases
    7 Topics
  6. 6.2 Using Brønsted–Lowry Theory
    2 Topics
  7. 6.3 Quantitative Analysis
    1 Topic
  8. Module 7: Organic Chemistry
    7.1 Nomenclature
    2 Topics
  9. 7.2 Hydrocarbons
    2 Topics
  10. 7.3 Products of Reactions Involving Hydrocarbons
  11. 7.4 Alcohols
    1 Topic
  12. 7.5 Reactions of Organic Acids and Bases
  13. 7.6 Polymers
    2 Topics
  14. Module 8: Applying Chemical Ideas
    8.1 Analysis of Inorganic Substances
    3 Topics
  15. 8.2 Analysis of Organic Substances
  16. 8.3 Chemical Synthesis and Design
  17. Working Scientifically
    Working Scientifically Overview
    1 Topic

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Lesson 11, Topic 1
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Comparison of Petro-fuels with Organic Fuels

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Fossil Fuels (primarily octane)Biofuels (primarily ethanol)
Advantages• Larger fossil fuel molecules have a much larger energy output per gram than smaller biofuel molecules, e.g. ethanol• Renewable (can be created by the fermentation of cellulose from crops)
• Combust completely, lead to less pollution
Can be mixed with petrol (up to 20%) without engine modification
Disadvantages• Non-renewable, therefore unsustainable
• Prices will rise with growing scarcity
• Larger fossil fuel molecules tend to combust less cleanly, leading to more CO (toxic) and soot (irritant) output
• Requires up to 75% of all available agricultural land to totally replace petrol with ethanol.
• Need to dispose of odorous fermentation waste products
• Lower heat of combustion
• Would require engine modifications for use in vehicles > 20% concentration (avoid corrosion)
AdvantagesSources of energy, suitable for use in combustion engines, organic molecules, same carbon backbone.
DisadvantagesSize, heat of combustion, renewable/nonrenewable, complete/incomplete combustion, production process.