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HSC Chemistry

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  1. Module 5: Equilibrium and Acid Reactions
    5.1 Static and Dynamic Equilibrium
    5 Topics
  2. 5.2 Factors that Affect Equilibrium
    2 Topics
  3. 5.3 Calculating the Equilibrium Constant
    2 Topics
  4. 5.4 Solution Equilibria
  5. Module 6: Acid/Base Reactions
    6.1 Properties of Acids and Bases
    7 Topics
  6. 6.2 Using Brønsted–Lowry Theory
    2 Topics
  7. 6.3 Quantitative Analysis
    1 Topic
  8. Module 7: Organic Chemistry
    7.1 Nomenclature
    2 Topics
  9. 7.2 Hydrocarbons
    2 Topics
  10. 7.3 Products of Reactions Involving Hydrocarbons
  11. 7.4 Alcohols
    1 Topic
  12. 7.5 Reactions of Organic Acids and Bases
  13. 7.6 Polymers
    2 Topics
  14. Module 8: Applying Chemical Ideas
    8.1 Analysis of Inorganic Substances
    3 Topics
  15. 8.2 Analysis of Organic Substances
  16. 8.3 Chemical Synthesis and Design
  17. Working Scientifically
    Working Scientifically Overview
    1 Topic

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Lesson 7, Topic 1
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Chemical Buffers

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A buffer is an aqueous solution which resists rapid changes in pH with the addition of small amounts of acid or base.

A buffer consists of:

  • Weak acid + Conjugate Base
  • OR Weak Base + Conjugate Acid

These should be added in roughly equal amounts. The buffer system works by the process of chemical equilibrium.

Examples of Buffer Systems

  • Ethanoic Acid + Sodium Ethanoate
  • Carbonic Acid + Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Ammonia + Ammonium Chloride

Preparation of a Buffer

  • Weak Acid & its salt
    • e.g. Ethanoic Acid + Sodium Ethanoate
  • Weak Acid + Strong Base
    • e.g. Ethanoic Acid + Sodium Hydroxide
  • Strong Acid + Salt of Weak Base
    • e.g. Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium Ethanoate