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HSC Chemistry

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  1. Module 5: Equilibrium and Acid Reactions
    5.1 Static and Dynamic Equilibrium
    5 Topics
  2. 5.2 Factors that Affect Equilibrium
    2 Topics
  3. 5.3 Calculating the Equilibrium Constant
    2 Topics
  4. 5.4 Solution Equilibria
  5. Module 6: Acid/Base Reactions
    6.1 Properties of Acids and Bases
    7 Topics
  6. 6.2 Using Brønsted–Lowry Theory
    2 Topics
  7. 6.3 Quantitative Analysis
    1 Topic
  8. Module 7: Organic Chemistry
    7.1 Nomenclature
    2 Topics
  9. 7.2 Hydrocarbons
    2 Topics
  10. 7.3 Products of Reactions Involving Hydrocarbons
  11. 7.4 Alcohols
    1 Topic
  12. 7.5 Reactions of Organic Acids and Bases
  13. 7.6 Polymers
    2 Topics
  14. Module 8: Applying Chemical Ideas
    8.1 Analysis of Inorganic Substances
    3 Topics
  15. 8.2 Analysis of Organic Substances
  16. 8.3 Chemical Synthesis and Design
  17. Working Scientifically
    Working Scientifically Overview
    1 Topic


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Lesson 17, Topic 1
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Analysing Data and Information

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Evaluating the Method

Bias is a form of systematic error resulting from the researcher’s personal preferences or motivations.

Accuracy is the degree of precision by which the experimental results were obtained. This can be effected by both equipment and method.

Validity is a question of whether or not a method addresses the set hypothesis and aims. Valid experiments appropriately test their hypotheses and meet their aims.

Reliability considers how close repeated measurements are to one another. This can be applied to individual measurements within an experiment or entire experiments themselves.

Error covers the differences between observed/recorded and actual results. It may be systematic (a constant, defined and repetitive deviation) or random (deviating unpredictably).

Improving Investigations

FactorImprove Single MeasurementsImprove Entire Experiment
AccuracySource and calibrate appropriate, accurate measuring equipment.Improve the accuracy of individual measurements.
ValidityN/AModify the method to address both the hypothesis and aim.
ReliabilityAlter the equipment and/or method to provide more consistent results.Increase the repetitions of each measurement and average results.

Note that both accuracy and reliability are affected by error.

  • Accuracy is affected by systematic error, whereby measured results may be consistently similar but deviate from the actual system.
  • Reliability is affected by random error, which causes measurements of the same factor to unpredictably deviate from each other, yet these may average to reflect the actual system.