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HSC Physics

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  1. Module 1: Kinematics
    1.1 Motion in a Straight Line
  2. 1.2 Motion on a Plane
  3. Module 2: Dynamics
    2.1 Forces
  4. 2.2 Forces, Acceleration and Energy
  5. 2.3 Momentum, Energy and Simple Systems
  6. Module 3: Waves and Thermodynamics
    3.1 Wave Properties
  7. 3.2 Wave Behaviour
  8. 3.3 Sound Waves
  9. 3.4 Ray Model of Light
  10. 3.5 Thermodynamics
  11. Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism
    4.1 Electrostatics
  12. 4.2 Electric Circuits
  13. 4.3 Magnetism
  14. Module 5: Advanced Mechanics
    5.1 Projectile Motion
  15. 5.2 Circular Motion
  16. 5.3 Motion in Gravitational Fields
    2 Topics
  17. Module 6: Electromagnetism
    6.1 Charged Particles, Conductors and Electric and Magnetic Fields
  18. 6.2 The Motor Effect
    1 Topic
  19. 6.3 Electromagnetic Induction
  20. 6.4 Applications of the Motor Effect
    1 Topic
  21. Module 7: The Nature of Light
    7.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3 Topics
  22. 7.2 Light: Wave Model
  23. 7.3 Light: Quantum Model
    2 Topics
  24. 7.4 Light and Special Relativity
  25. Module 8: From the Universe to the Atom
    8.1 Origins of the Elements
    5 Topics
  26. 8.2 Structure of the Atom
    3 Topics
  27. 8.3 Quantum Mechanical Nature of the Atom
    2 Topics
  28. 8.4 Properties of the Nucleus
    2 Topics
  29. 8.5 Deep Inside the Atom
    4 Topics
Lesson 29, Topic 2
In Progress

The Standard Model of Matter

Lesson Progress
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Three Generations of Matter (Fermions)

Quarks

IIIIII
up
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>u</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): +2/3
charm
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>c</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): +2/3
top
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>t</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): +2/3
down
<span style=”font-size:2.5em”>d</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1/3
strange
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>s</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1/3
bottom
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>b</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1/3
  • Hadrons are particles that feel the strong nuclear force
    • Held together by the strong nuclear force
    • Baryons are any hadrons composed of 3 valence quarks
      • Protons have 2 up quarks and 1 down quark for a +1 charge
      • Neutrons have 1 up quark and 2 down quarks for a neutral charge
    • Mesons are quark/antiquark pairs

Leptons

IIIIII
electron
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>e</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1
muon
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>\mu</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1
tau
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>\tau</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): -1
electron neutrino
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>\nu_e</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): 0
muon neutrino
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>\nu_\mu</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): 0
tau neutrino
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>\nu_\tau</span>
Spin No.: 1/2
Charge (e): 0
  • Leptons only respond to electromagnetic, weak and gravitational forces
    • Neutrinos are extremely light and have no electrical charge
    • Tau is the only lepton which can decay into a quark

Interactions / Force Carriers

i.e. Bosons

Gauge Bosons (Vector Bosons)

gluon
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>g</span>
Spin No.: 1
Charge (e): 0
photon
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>\gamma</span>
Spin No.: 1
Charge (e): 0
Z boson
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>Z</span>
Spin No.: 1
Charge (e): 0
W boson
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>W</span>
Spin No.: 1
Charge (e): ±1
  • Gluons carry the strong nuclear force, holding quarks together

Scalar Bosons

higgs
<span style=”font-size: 2.5em”>H</span>
Spin No.: 0
Charge (e): 0

Four Fundamental Forces

ForceActs onResponsible forAppears
GravitationalObjects with massGiving an object with mass its weight.Mod’s 2, 5.
ElectromagneticCharges and currentsMost of the interactions we see in our environment today, including all chemical reactionsMod’s 4, 6, 7
Strong nuclearSubatomic particlesHolding a nucleus together.Mod. 8
Weak nuclearSubatomic particlesRadioactive decay of atoms.Mod. 8