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HSC Physics

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  1. Module 1: Kinematics
    1.1 Motion in a Straight Line
  2. 1.2 Motion on a Plane
  3. Module 2: Dynamics
    2.1 Forces
  4. 2.2 Forces, Acceleration and Energy
  5. 2.3 Momentum, Energy and Simple Systems
  6. Module 3: Waves and Thermodynamics
    3.1 Wave Properties
  7. 3.2 Wave Behaviour
  8. 3.3 Sound Waves
  9. 3.4 Ray Model of Light
  10. 3.5 Thermodynamics
  11. Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism
    4.1 Electrostatics
  12. 4.2 Electric Circuits
  13. 4.3 Magnetism
  14. Module 5: Advanced Mechanics
    5.1 Projectile Motion
  15. 5.2 Circular Motion
  16. 5.3 Motion in Gravitational Fields
    2 Topics
  17. Module 6: Electromagnetism
    6.1 Charged Particles, Conductors and Electric and Magnetic Fields
  18. 6.2 The Motor Effect
    1 Topic
  19. 6.3 Electromagnetic Induction
  20. 6.4 Applications of the Motor Effect
    1 Topic
  21. Module 7: The Nature of Light
    7.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3 Topics
  22. 7.2 Light: Wave Model
  23. 7.3 Light: Quantum Model
    2 Topics
  24. 7.4 Light and Special Relativity
  25. Module 8: From the Universe to the Atom
    8.1 Origins of the Elements
    5 Topics
  26. 8.2 Structure of the Atom
    3 Topics
  27. 8.3 Quantum Mechanical Nature of the Atom
    2 Topics
  28. 8.4 Properties of the Nucleus
    2 Topics
  29. 8.5 Deep Inside the Atom
    4 Topics
Lesson 29, Topic 3
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Particle Accelerators

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Particle accelerators launch elementary particles, such as electrons and protons, to high velocities and energies by means of electric or electromagnetic fields.

  • Linear accelerators: Straight-line path of travel.
  • Circular accelerators: Circular path of travel.

Discovery of the Electron, Proton and Neutron

  1. The electron was discovered by Thomson using cathode ray tubes, which are essentially electron accelerators.
  2. Radioisotopes emitting alpha particles are natural accelerators which helped to discover the proton and neutron.
    1. Rutherford discovered the nucleus (thus proton) by firing alpha particles at gold atoms.
    2. Chadwick discovered the neutron by firing alpha particles at beryllium atoms.

Verification of the Standard Model of Matter

  1. Particles accelerated to near light-speed.
  2. The high-energy particles are made to collide.
  3. Kinetic energy momentarily converted to matter (mass), creating new particles which may be studied:
    1. Directly
    2. And indirectly, from decay products

Types of Modern Particle Accelerators

Particle Accelerator Classifications

Operation of Particle Accelerators

  1. Electric fields accelerate particles
  2. Magnetic fields steer particles

There are some important things to note about this.

  • Linear accelerators don’t need magnetic fields – only straight-line motion
  • Cyclotrons use constant magnetic fields to deflect particles in a spiral (circular path of increasing radius)
  • Synchrotrons, like the LHC, require increasing magnetic fields to deflect particles in a circular path of constant radius