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HSC Physics

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  1. Module 1: Kinematics
    1.1 Motion in a Straight Line
  2. 1.2 Motion on a Plane
  3. Module 2: Dynamics
    2.1 Forces
  4. 2.2 Forces, Acceleration and Energy
  5. 2.3 Momentum, Energy and Simple Systems
  6. Module 3: Waves and Thermodynamics
    3.1 Wave Properties
  7. 3.2 Wave Behaviour
  8. 3.3 Sound Waves
  9. 3.4 Ray Model of Light
  10. 3.5 Thermodynamics
  11. Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism
    4.1 Electrostatics
  12. 4.2 Electric Circuits
  13. 4.3 Magnetism
  14. Module 5: Advanced Mechanics
    5.1 Projectile Motion
  15. 5.2 Circular Motion
  16. 5.3 Motion in Gravitational Fields
    2 Topics
  17. Module 6: Electromagnetism
    6.1 Charged Particles, Conductors and Electric and Magnetic Fields
  18. 6.2 The Motor Effect
    1 Topic
  19. 6.3 Electromagnetic Induction
  20. 6.4 Applications of the Motor Effect
    1 Topic
  21. Module 7: The Nature of Light
    7.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3 Topics
  22. 7.2 Light: Wave Model
  23. 7.3 Light: Quantum Model
    2 Topics
  24. 7.4 Light and Special Relativity
  25. Module 8: From the Universe to the Atom
    8.1 Origins of the Elements
    5 Topics
  26. 8.2 Structure of the Atom
    3 Topics
  27. 8.3 Quantum Mechanical Nature of the Atom
    2 Topics
  28. 8.4 Properties of the Nucleus
    2 Topics
  29. 8.5 Deep Inside the Atom
    4 Topics
Lesson 29, Topic 4
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Force Carrier Particles

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All interactions between particles may be explained in terms of four fundamental forces:

  1. Electromagnetic force (photon)
  2. Strong nuclear force (gluon)
  3. Weak nuclear force (W and Z bosons)
  4. Gravitational force (not explained by the standard model)

These forces can cause particles to attract, repel or transform into different types of particles. Forces in the standard model are mediated by force carrier particles, known as force carrier bosons.

Photon – Electromagnetism

  • Range of effect is infinite, as photons have no mass
  • Force experienced by everything with charge
  • Holds atoms and molecules together through attraction between nucleus and electrons, and attraction between atoms in a molecule
  • Also repels like charges, for example, two electrons

Gluon – Strong Force

  • Short range (~10-15 m)
  • Experienced only by quarks
  • Holds hadrons together, and holds the nucleus together

W and Z Boson – Weak Force

  • The only force that can change the flavour (type) of a quark or lepton
  • Allows quarks and leptons to interact
  • The only force that can change the charge of a particle, as W+ and W are the only charged force carriers

Example: Beta-minus decay. The weak force turns a down quark into an up quark, hence turning a neutron into a proton.