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HSC Physics

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  1. Module 1: Kinematics
    1.1 Motion in a Straight Line
  2. 1.2 Motion on a Plane
  3. Module 2: Dynamics
    2.1 Forces
  4. 2.2 Forces, Acceleration and Energy
  5. 2.3 Momentum, Energy and Simple Systems
  6. Module 3: Waves and Thermodynamics
    3.1 Wave Properties
  7. 3.2 Wave Behaviour
  8. 3.3 Sound Waves
  9. 3.4 Ray Model of Light
  10. 3.5 Thermodynamics
  11. Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism
    4.1 Electrostatics
  12. 4.2 Electric Circuits
  13. 4.3 Magnetism
  14. Module 5: Advanced Mechanics
    5.1 Projectile Motion
  15. 5.2 Circular Motion
  16. 5.3 Motion in Gravitational Fields
    2 Topics
  17. Module 6: Electromagnetism
    6.1 Charged Particles, Conductors and Electric and Magnetic Fields
  18. 6.2 The Motor Effect
    1 Topic
  19. 6.3 Electromagnetic Induction
  20. 6.4 Applications of the Motor Effect
    1 Topic
  21. Module 7: The Nature of Light
    7.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3 Topics
  22. 7.2 Light: Wave Model
  23. 7.3 Light: Quantum Model
    2 Topics
  24. 7.4 Light and Special Relativity
  25. Module 8: From the Universe to the Atom
    8.1 Origins of the Elements
    5 Topics
  26. 8.2 Structure of the Atom
    3 Topics
  27. 8.3 Quantum Mechanical Nature of the Atom
    2 Topics
  28. 8.4 Properties of the Nucleus
    2 Topics
  29. 8.5 Deep Inside the Atom
    4 Topics
Lesson 25, Topic 1
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The Big Bang Theory

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The Big Bang Theory asserts that time and space in our universe began from an incredibly hot point called a singularity about 13.8 billion years ago. The Big Bang is an expansion of space rather than an explosion and the theory assets that the universe has been expanding and cooling for the past 13.8 billion years.

In the first microsecond after the Big Bang, huge numbers of subatomic matter-antimatter pairs (e.g. quarks, neutrinos and electrons) were produced by photons as the universe began to expand and cool. For some unknown reason, the radiation produced one extra matter-particle per billion anti-matter pairs. This small excess of matter accounts for all the matter we see in the universe today.

As the universe expanded and cooled, quarks combined to form hadrons (e.g. protons and neutrons) and, after further cooling, some helium nuclei and a small number of lithium nuclei were formed in a process called nuclear synthesis.

20 minutes after the Big Bang it was too cool for nuclear synthesis to continue and, after 250 000 years, electrons began to combine with nuclei to form atoms.