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HSC Physics

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  1. Module 1: Kinematics
    1.1 Motion in a Straight Line
  2. 1.2 Motion on a Plane
  3. Module 2: Dynamics
    2.1 Forces
  4. 2.2 Forces, Acceleration and Energy
  5. 2.3 Momentum, Energy and Simple Systems
  6. Module 3: Waves and Thermodynamics
    3.1 Wave Properties
  7. 3.2 Wave Behaviour
  8. 3.3 Sound Waves
  9. 3.4 Ray Model of Light
  10. 3.5 Thermodynamics
  11. Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism
    4.1 Electrostatics
  12. 4.2 Electric Circuits
  13. 4.3 Magnetism
  14. Module 5: Advanced Mechanics
    5.1 Projectile Motion
  15. 5.2 Circular Motion
  16. 5.3 Motion in Gravitational Fields
    2 Topics
  17. Module 6: Electromagnetism
    6.1 Charged Particles, Conductors and Electric and Magnetic Fields
  18. 6.2 The Motor Effect
    1 Topic
  19. 6.3 Electromagnetic Induction
  20. 6.4 Applications of the Motor Effect
    1 Topic
  21. Module 7: The Nature of Light
    7.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3 Topics
  22. 7.2 Light: Wave Model
  23. 7.3 Light: Quantum Model
    2 Topics
  24. 7.4 Light and Special Relativity
  25. Module 8: From the Universe to the Atom
    8.1 Origins of the Elements
    5 Topics
  26. 8.2 Structure of the Atom
    3 Topics
  27. 8.3 Quantum Mechanical Nature of the Atom
    2 Topics
  28. 8.4 Properties of the Nucleus
    2 Topics
  29. 8.5 Deep Inside the Atom
    4 Topics
Lesson 25, Topic 2
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Expansion of the Universe

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  • In 1922, Alexander Friedmann applied Einstein’s general theory of relativity to the universe and shows that its equations predicted a dynamic, expanding universe rather than a stable, steady state universe
  • Einstein tried to prevent his equations from producing a dynamic solution by adding a ‘fudge factor’ that he called the cosmological constant.
  • Using the world’s biggest telescope in 1923, Hubble observed that the Andromeda nebula (M21) was made up of a huge number of stars. Using the period of Cepheid variable stars, Hubble estimated its distance away from us and concluded that M21 was an island galaxy beyond our own. Hubble had discovered that the universe extended beyond the Milky Way.
  • Hubble then measured the redshift of the light from 46 galaxies and found that the further away a galaxy was, the more its light was redshifted, confirming that the universe was expanding.
  • Recent studies have shown that the rate at which the universe is expanding is increasing.