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HSC Chemistry

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  1. Module 1: Properties and Structure of Matter
    1.1 Properties of Matter
  2. 1.2 Atomic Structure and Atomic Mass
  3. 1.3 Periodicity
  4. 1.4 Bonding
  5. Module 2: Introduction to Quantitative Chemistry
    2.1 Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry
  6. 2.2 Mole Concept
  7. 2.3 Concentration and Molarity
  8. 2.4 Gas Laws
  9. Module 3: Reactive Chemistry
    3.1 Chemical Reactions
  10. 3.2 Predicting Reactions of Metals
  11. 3.3 Rates of Reactions
  12. Module 4: Drivers of Reactions
    4.1 Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions
  13. 4.2 Enthalpy and Hess's Law
  14. 4.3 Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy
  15. Module 5: Equilibrium and Acid Reactions
    5.1 Static and Dynamic Equilibrium
    5 Topics
  16. 5.2 Factors that Affect Equilibrium
    2 Topics
  17. 5.3 Calculating the Equilibrium Constant
    2 Topics
  18. 5.4 Solution Equilibria
  19. Module 6: Acid/Base Reactions
    6.1 Properties of Acids and Bases
    7 Topics
  20. 6.2 Using Brønsted–Lowry Theory
    2 Topics
  21. 6.3 Quantitative Analysis
    1 Topic
  22. Module 7: Organic Chemistry
    7.1 Nomenclature
    2 Topics
  23. 7.2 Hydrocarbons
    2 Topics
  24. 7.3 Products of Reactions Involving Hydrocarbons
  25. 7.4 Alcohols
    1 Topic
  26. 7.5 Reactions of Organic Acids and Bases
  27. 7.6 Polymers
    2 Topics
  28. Module 8: Applying Chemical Ideas
    8.1 Analysis of Inorganic Substances
    3 Topics
  29. 8.2 Analysis of Organic Substances
  30. 8.3 Chemical Synthesis and Design
  31. Working Scientifically
    Working Scientifically Overview
    1 Topic
Lesson 31, Topic 1
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Analysing Data and Information

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Evaluating the Method

Bias is a form of systematic error resulting from the researcher’s personal preferences or motivations.

Accuracy is the degree of precision by which the experimental results were obtained. This can be effected by both equipment and method.

Validity is a question of whether or not a method addresses the set hypothesis and aims. Valid experiments appropriately test their hypotheses and meet their aims.

Reliability considers how close repeated measurements are to one another. This can be applied to individual measurements within an experiment or entire experiments themselves.

Error covers the differences between observed/recorded and actual results. It may be systematic (a constant, defined and repetitive deviation) or random (deviating unpredictably).

Improving Investigations

FactorImprove Single MeasurementsImprove Entire Experiment
AccuracySource and calibrate appropriate, accurate measuring equipment.Improve the accuracy of individual measurements.
ValidityN/AModify the method to address both the hypothesis and aim.
ReliabilityAlter the equipment and/or method to provide more consistent results.Increase the repetitions of each measurement and average results.

Note that both accuracy and reliability are affected by error.

  • Accuracy is affected by systematic error, whereby measured results may be consistently similar but deviate from the actual system.
  • Reliability is affected by random error, which causes measurements of the same factor to unpredictably deviate from each other, yet these may average to reflect the actual system.