Module 1: Properties and Structure of Matter1.1 Properties of Matter
1.2 Atomic Structure and Atomic Mass
Module 2: Introduction to Quantitative Chemistry2.1 Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry
2.2 Mole Concept
2.3 Concentration and Molarity
2.4 Gas Laws
Module 3: Reactive Chemistry3.1 Chemical Reactions
3.2 Predicting Reactions of Metals
3.3 Rates of Reactions
Module 4: Drivers of Reactions4.1 Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions
4.2 Enthalpy and Hess's Law
4.3 Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy
Module 5: Equilibrium and Acid Reactions5.1 Static and Dynamic Equilibrium5 Topics
5.2 Factors that Affect Equilibrium2 Topics
5.3 Calculating the Equilibrium Constant2 Topics
5.4 Solution Equilibria
Module 6: Acid/Base Reactions6.1 Properties of Acids and Bases7 Topics
6.2 Using Brønsted–Lowry Theory2 Topics
6.3 Quantitative Analysis1 Topic
Module 7: Organic Chemistry7.1 Nomenclature2 Topics
7.2 Hydrocarbons2 Topics
7.3 Products of Reactions Involving Hydrocarbons
7.4 Alcohols1 Topic
7.5 Reactions of Organic Acids and Bases
7.6 Polymers2 Topics
Module 8: Applying Chemical Ideas8.1 Analysis of Inorganic Substances3 Topics
8.2 Analysis of Organic Substances
8.3 Chemical Synthesis and Design
Working ScientificallyWorking Scientifically Overview1 Topic
Steps for Naming Organic Substances
The following steps are critical to accurately naming a variety of organic substances required by the syllabus.
- IDENTIFY PARENT CHAIN
(longest continuous carbon chain)*
*if multiple options of equal length, select for smallest branching
- IDENTIFY MAIN FN. GROUP
Use below hierarchy (if multiple).
No fn. group = alkane.
–> YOUR SUFFIX
- IDENTIFY SUBSTITUENTS
–> YOUR PREFIXES
- DOUBLE/TRIPLE BONDS?
Change ‘an’ –> ‘en’/’yn’ in parent prefix.
(e.g. ethanol –> ethenol)
- MULTIPLE SAME SUBSTITUENTS?
Add di/tri/tetra prefixes.*
*no effect on alphabetical order
- NUMBER CARBON CHAIN
Give parent fn. group lowest #.
If you have: alkanes, alkyl groups, halogens
>> number from end closest to a substituent
- ADD LOCANT NUMBERS
For every single substituent.
Hyphens (-) go between letters and numbers. Commas separate numbers. There are no spaces in names, except for carboxylic acids.
Functional Group Hierarchy
i.e., the order of precedence of groups
- Carboxylic acids
- Carboxylic acid derivatives
- Acid Halides
- Alkynes, Alkenes
*Note that alkanes do not have a functional group. However, they have been placed in this list for convenience.